Personality is a thing that makes each one of us unique. It is the style of our behavior, our way of thinking, how we react to situations, our thoughts and feelings, our perceptions, and how we interact in society. Having a healthy personality enables us to carry out the daily chores aptly. However, many of us experience situations and stress that make these tasks a challenge.
Who are the people with personality disorders?
What are the types of personality disorders?
How we can identify them?
These are some questions that hover around us. Thus, we have covered 10 main types of personality disorders in the below section.
Personality has –
Power to uplift, power to depress,
power to curse, and the power to bless.
What Is A Personality Disorder?
Personality disorders can be diagnosed as a condition characterized by an outburst of violence and rage in the absences of psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions.
According to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th Revision (DSM-5), a personality disorder can be diagnosed if there are noteworthy impairments in self and interpersonal functioning together with one or more pathological personality traits.
In addition, these features must be –
- relatively stable across time and consistent across situations,
- not better understood as normative for the individual’s developmental stage or socio-cultural environment, and
- not solely due to the direct effects of a substance or general medical condition.
Types Of Personality Disorders
The DSM-5 classifies personality disorders into three ‘clusters’ A, B, and C. Let’s look at the 10 types of personality disorders below.
People grouped under cluster A of personality disorders find it difficult to relate with others. Their behavior is more often eccentric or odd.
1. Paranoid Personality Disorder
People with this disorder find it had to trust anyone without any evidence of it happening.
Such people might experience –
- fear and anxiety
- mistrust and suspicion
- anger over perceived abuse
- concern about hidden meanings or motives
Around 2-4% of the general population may be affected by this disorder.
2. Schizoid Personality Disorder
Being detached from the social environment and non-expression of emotions define a person with a schizoid personality disorder.
These people will tend to –
- avoid close social contacts or relationships
- chooses to be alone
- react to situations in ways that others consider inappropriate
- appear withdrawn and isolated
Psychosis and hallucinations are not part of this type of personality disorder. It affects less than 1% of the population.
3. Schizotypal Personality Disorder
People with this type of personality disorder have difficulty trusting others and making close relationships out of the family. They show odd beliefs, peculiar and eccentric behavior with social anxiety.
They might experience some of these behaviors –
- finds special significance in small events they come across
- believes in superstitions, telepathy or other bizarre fantasies
- signs of suspiciousness or paranoid thinking
- inappropriate or bizarre facial expressions
- odd thinking and speech
- lack of close friends and confidants
- excessive social anxiety
These people might develop schizophrenia in the future.
People with cluster B personality disorders can find it hard to control their emotions. Other people might see them as unpredictable.
4. Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD)
A person with ASPD shows a pattern of disregards towards the rights of others.
This can result in –
- violent and antisocial behavior
- novelty-seeking behavior
- risk of criminal activity
ASPD affects around 1-3% of the general population. This personality disorder is more likely to affect men than women.
5. Borderline Personality Disorder
This is one type of personality disorders where a person shows intense emotions, impulsive behavior, and instability in personal relationships.
They may experience –
- impulsive and self-harming behavior
- mood swings
- shifts in behavior and self-image
- a sense of emptiness
- periods of intense anger, anxiety, boredom, and depression
- feelings of detachment, or dissociation
- recurrent suicidal behaviors
6. Histrionic Personality Disorder
Persons show extensive attention-seeking behavior or exaggerated emotions. They try to draw attention to their physical appearance or acts.
The disorder may lead to the following behavioral changes –
- provocative and flirtatious nature
- excessively emotional or dramatic
- risky, as the person constantly seeks excitement and novelty
- high levels of stress
- depression and anxiety
7. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
The person affected with narcissistic personality disorder shows an extravagant sense of entitlement and self-importance. They try to take advantage of others and lack empathy.
These are some personality traits they show –
- inflated sense of their self-importance, power, and success
- crave admiration
- experience hurt and rejection easily
- experience jealousy
- appear arrogant or pretentious
- prone to impulsive behavior
- use lethal means to attempt suicide
People with cluster C personality disorders portray feelings of anxiousness and fearfulness.
8. Avoidant Personality Disorder
People with avoidant personality disorder avoid socializing due to the fear of inadequacy and fear of rejection.
They may experience –
- inadequacy and shyness
- low self-esteem
- lack of ability to form relationships
- socially inhibited
- higher risk of substance abuse, binge eating, or depression
9. Dependent Personality Disorder
People with dependent personality disorder face difficulty in making their own decisions. They show clingy or submissive behavior.
Their characteristics are –
- dependent on others and need to be taken care of by others
- easily manipulated by others
- exhibits deep fear of abandonment
- doesn’t like to be alone
- nonassertive and passive behavior
10. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
The obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) shows a pattern of preoccupation with perfection and orderliness.
A person with OCPD may tend to –
- appear inflexible in their moral and values
- find it hard to complete a task due to the fear of being imperfect
- be uncomfortable in messy situations and places
- hoard items
- be highly efficient in the workplace
- have difficulty delegating tasks to others
- appear stubborn and uncooperative
Treatment of Personality Disorders
There are various types of psychotherapies that treat personality disorder. Some useful methods are –
- Psychoanalytic/psychodynamic therapy
- Dialectical behavior therapy
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy
- Group therapy
- Stress management
- Abstinence from drugs and alcohol
- Art therapies
- Schema therapy
- Medications include antidepressants, antipsychotics, and mood stabilizers
Family support is the key to recover from personality disorders. Along with health care provider, you may help individual combat his fear and recover from the depressing and stressful life.
Frequently Asked Question
The most common personality disorder is obsessive-compulsive personality.
People suffering from antisocial personality disorder or obsessive compulsive personality disorder are difficult to treat.
Although the right reason of persona issues isn’t known, positive factors appear to boom the chance of developing or triggering character disorders, together with: Family history of personality issues or other mental illness. Abusive, volatile or chaotic family existence in the course of youth.
Personality Disorders get worsen with age .Personality issues that are at risk of worsening with age consist of paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, obsessive compulsive, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, and structured.
Its very tough to get cured for personality disorder. Only 2- 4 % of humans suffering from personality disorder can treatment.
She is a pharmacist by education and working in the field of medical content development for more than 9 years. She has an excellent hold on medical content research and development and has produced valuable data for various pharmaceutical companies.